On this page, you can get to know the categories that are used in the Diki dictionary so that you can use it as efficiently as possible.
The English dictionary includes language varieties that are used in various countries and social groups:
British English (en-GB)/(BrE)– Britisch-Englisch
American English (en-US)/(AmE)– Amerikanisches-Englisch
Canadian English (en-CA)/(CanE)– Kanadisches-Englisch
Australian English (en-AU)/(AusE)– Australisches-Englisch
New Zealand English (en-NZ)/(NZE)– Neuseeländisches Englisch
Scottish English (en-Scotland)/(ScoE)– Schottisches Englisch
Irish English (en-IE)/(IrlE)– Irisches Englisch
South African English (en-ZA)/(SAE)– South African Englisch
latin (en-Latin)/(latin)– besonderes Symbol für die lateinischen Entsprechungen der Namen von Tieren, Pflanzen, Krankheiten, etc.
African American Vernacular English (en-AAVE)/(AAVE)– Vor allem in der afroamerikanischen Gemeinschaft verwendet
Indian English (en-IN)/(InE)– Indisches Englisch
Transitive verbs use both a subject (i.e. a person who is a doer), and an object (i.e. a person or a thing that is affected by the action of the subject).
For example in a sentence:
Tom lifted the box. = Tom lifted a box.
"Tom" is a subject of a verb lift (i.e. a doer), whereas a "box" is an object (a thing on which the action in performed). The verb “lift” is transitive in this meaning, which means that it goes with an object - a sentence "Tom lifted." wouldn’t make sense.
Intransitive verbs go without an object (for example "sleep").
Some verbs can act both like transitive verbs ("transitive") and intransitive verbs ("intransitive"). For example, a verb "eat" in a sentence:
He is eating soup. = He’s eating soup.
acts like a transitive verb ("soup" is an object), whereas in a sentence:
She is eating. = She’s eating.
it acts like an intransitive verb (there is no object).
Countable nouns have both singular and plural forms.
boy = boy
tree = tree
woman = woman
English uncountable nouns are tagged as [uncountable]. In particular, they are:
a) substance names, for example:
milk = milk
water = water
sugar = sugar
bread = bread
b) various names and abstract terms, for example:
music = music
tennis = tennis
happiness = luck
Note that many nouns which are countable in Polish aren’t countable in English. Their "uncountability " has to be acquired with a meaning to avoid unnecessary mistakes.
money = das Geld
advice = advice
hair = hair
information = information
Uncountable nouns are treated as singular in a grammatical sense, so::
This money is dirty.= This money is dirty.
Your hair is wet. = Your hair is wet.
For many nouns, such as
we would like to use them in a plural and singular form depending on the context. How to deal with it?
There’s no difficulty with a plural meaning, we use a noun as it is:
This is all the necessary information. = This is all needed information.
To emphasise singularity, we need a particular term which will agree with an uncountable character of a noun, for example
This is the necessary piece of information.
= This is the needed message.
Word "a piece" (piece) it somehow "cuts" one piece of uncountable "information".
Some uncountable nouns, however inherently uncountable, can be counted in a certain context. For example, in a cafe we order "two teas" (two teas), meaning two cups of tea, or in a pub we order "four beers" (four beers). And when we find a hair in soup, we would complain about the dish to the waiter saying: "there is a hair in my soup" (there is a hair in my soup).
Countable nouns which are mostly used in a plural form.
Nouns which, depending on a context, can be both countable and uncountable.
(slang) = Wort wird in der Umgangssprache verwendet
(formal) = Wort wird in der Amtssprache verwendet
(informal) = Wort wird in der Alltagssprache verwendet
(literary) = literarischer Begriff
(technical) = Fachbegriff
(old-fashioned) = Wort veraltet, jetzt nur selten verwendet
(old use) = das Wort wurde in früheren Jahrhunderten verwendet (z.B. thy)
(spoken) = das Wort wird häufig in der gesprochenen Sprache verwendet
(written) = das Wort wird häufig in der geschriebenen Sprache verwendet
(not polite) = beleidigendes Wort
(taboo) = Fluch- oder Schimpfwort
(trademark) = das Wort ist ein Markenziechen
(dialect) = Wort im Dialekt
(loan-word) = Entlehnung aus einer anderen Sprache
(humorous) = scherzhaft verwendetes Wort
(rare) = selten verwendetes Wort
(figurative) = Wort mit übertragener Bedeutung
(diminutive) = Diminutiv
(augmentative) = Augmentativ
(ironic) = ironisch verwendetes Wort
(verlan) = Verlan-Slang-Wörter
The most popular words that are worth paying special attention to when learning are marked with asterisks.
***** – 1000 most popular words (e.g. yes, he, time)
**** – 2000 most popular words (e.g. phone, cheap, traffic)
*** – 3000 most popular words (e.g. funny, cat, apple)
** – 4000 most popular words (e.g. trick, polite, angel)
* – 5000 most popular words (e.g. fingernail, generosity, roundabout)
Thematische Wörterbücher – list of categories used in the dictionary